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2020
Level: leicht
Feminist economics is a key component of the movement for pluralism in economics and one that has, to some extent, been acknowledged by the mainstream of the profession. It seeks to highlight issues which affect women because (it claims) they have not traditionally been recognised in a field dominated by men. On top of this, it seeks to carve out a space for women in the discipline, both for intrinsic reasons of fairness and diversity and because it means that women’s issues are more likely to be highlighted going forward.
2020
Level: mittel
These notes aim to clarify some basic features and implications of gross capital flows In the context of the 2007 08 Global Financial Crisis and the 2010 12 Eurozone Crisis trade imbalances and capital flows received a lot of attention from academics policymakers and the media However there is still …
2017
Level: leicht
Due to the economic crisis of 2008/2009, households faced drastic decreases in their incomes, the availability of jobs. Additionally, the structure of the labour market changed, while austerity measures and public spending cuts left households with less support and safeguards provided by the state. How have these developments affected the burden of unpaid labour and what influence did this have on gender relations?
2018
Level: leicht
This essay focuses on the sources of government revenue within the Middle East and North African (MENA) region and proposes the implementation of a regional tax reset through increased taxation and tax reforms, deregulation in the private sector and economic diversification to reduce macroeconomic volatilities caused by the hydrocarbon industry.
2020
Level: leicht
Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) is a school of monetary and macroeconomic thought that focuses on the analysis of the monetary and credit system, and in particular on the question of credit creation by the state.
 
Austrian economics focuses on the economic coordination of individuals in a market economy. Austrian economics emphasises individualism, subjectivism, laissez-faire politics, uncertainty and the role of the entrepreneur, amongst others.
2017
Level: leicht
This essay draws on several analyses on the gender impact of the recession and of austerity policies, in which authors acknowledge a threat to women’s labour market integration and a potential backlash to traditional gender labour structures. We contribute to that literature by asking whether recession and austerity convey a gender effect on educational attainment. Our aim in this essay is to portray the likely effects of austerity measures on gender equality with a focus on women’s participation in tertiary education and to hypothesize the implications of these scenarios for labour market effects, to be tested in future empirical research.
2018
Level: mittel
Diese Webseite widmet sich der Vielfalt bestehender ökonomischer Theorien und Methoden. Orientiere Dich, vergleiche, entdecke und studiere die unterschiedlichen ökonomischen Perspektiven.
2015
Level: mittel
The principle of effective demand, and the claim of its validity for a monetary production economy in the short and in the long run, is the core of heterodox macroeconomics, as currently found in all the different strands of post-Keynesian economics (Fundamentalists, Kaleckians, Sraffians, Kaldorians, Institutionalists) and also in some strands of neo-Marxian economics, particularly in the monopoly capitalism and underconsumptionist school In this contribution, we will therefore outline the foundations of the principle of effective demand and its relationship with the respective notion of a capitalist or a monetary production economy in the works of Marx, Kalecki and Keynes. Then we will deal with heterodox short-run macroeconomics and it will provide a simple short-run model which is built on the principle of effective demand, as well as on distribution conflict between different social groups (or classes): rentiers, managers and workers. Finally, we will move to the long run and we will review the integration of the principle of effective demand into heterodox/post-Keynesian approaches towards distribution and growth.
Level: leicht
Global Value Chains (GVCs) started to play an increasing and key role in the global economy from the 1990s on. The market mechanism in GVCs supports industrialisation in the Global South and under certain conditions product and process upgrading. But GVCs do not lead to the catching-up of countries in the sense of them approaching real GDP per capita levels comparable with developed countries. These arguments are supported by a critical interpretation of the traditional trade theory, the New Trade Theory and specific approaches to explain GVCs, especially different governance structures and power relationships. Several case studies support these arguments. For catching-up, countries need comprehensive horizontal and vertical industrial policy and policies for social coherence. The small number of countries which managed to catch up did this in different variations.
2019
Level: leicht
This article examines the spread of financialization in Germany before the financial crisis. It provides an up-to date overview on the literature on financialization and reviews which of the phenomena typically associated with financialization have emerged in Germany. In particular, the article aims to clarify how the prevailing institutional structure and its changes had contributed to or had countervailed the spread of financialization and how it had shaped the specific German variant of financialization. For this end, it combines the rich literature on Germany's institutional structure with the more macroeconomic oriented literature on financializaton. With the combination of those different perspectives the article sheds light on the reasons for the spread of financialization and the specific forms it has taken in Germany.
2017
Level: mittel
The article compares market fundamentalism and right-wing populism on the basis of its core patterns of thinking and reasoning. Based on an analysis of important texts in both fields we find many similarities of these two concepts in their "inner images". Thus, we develop a scheme of the similar dual social worlds of right-wing-populism and market fundamentalism and offer some recent examples of market fundamentalism and right-wing populism mutually reinforcing each other or serving as a gateway for each other. We then apply our scheme for the analysis of the recent political developments and its ideological roots in the US under Donald Trump.
2016
Level: leicht
Exploring Economics, an open-source e-learning platform, giving you the opportunity to discover & study a variety of economic theories, topics, and methods.
2017
Level: mittel
Exploring Economics, an open-access e-learning platform, giving you the opportunity to discover & study a variety of economic theories, topics, and methods.
2020
Level: mittel
Exploring Economics, an open-access e-learning platform, giving you the opportunity to discover & study a variety of economic theories, topics, and methods.
1997
Level: mittel
Exploring Economics, an open-access e-learning platform, giving you the opportunity to discover & study a variety of economic theories, topics, and methods.
1993
Level: schwer
Karl Marx was the greatest champion of the labor theory of value. The logical problems of this theory have, however, split scholars of Marx into two factions: those who regard it as an indivisible component of Marxism, and those who wish to continue the spirit of analysis begun by Marx without the labor theory of value.
2020
Level: leicht
Michael Kalecki famously remarked “I have found out what economics is; it is the science of confusing stocks with flows”. Stock-Flow Consistent (SFC) models were developed precisely to address this kind of confusion. The basic intuition of SFC models is that the economy is built up as a set of intersecting balance sheets, where transactions between entities are called flows and the value of the assets/liabilities they hold are called stocks. Wages are a flow; bank deposits are a stock, and confusing the two directly is a category error. In this edition of the pluralist showcase I will first describe the logic of SFC models – which is worth exploring in depth – before discussing empirical calibration and applications of the models. Warning that there is a little more maths in this post than usual (i.e. some), but you should be able to skip those parts and still easily get the picture.
2020
Level: leicht
Whether a black swan or a scapegoat, Covid-19 is an extraordinary event. Declared by the WHO as a pandemic, Covid-19 has given birth to the concept of the economic “sudden stop.” We need extraordinary measures to contain it.
2020
Level: mittel
In diesem Text aus der Reihe "Exploring Economics - Foundations" werden die Grundlagen der Internationalen Politischen Ökonomie als interdisziplinäre wissenschaftliche Strömung dargestellt.
2019
Level: leicht
This study aims to provide insights on how the Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) is contributing to the future of work.
2020
Level: mittel
This course focus on the behaviour of individuals from an pluralist economic and an interdisciplinary bevavioural science apprach.
2022
Level: leicht
The lecturer focuses on his own paper The Economic Limits of Bitcoin and Anonymous Decentralized Trust on the Blockchain analysing the innovation of cryptocurrencies particularly bitcoin and its economic credibility The innovator of cryptocurrency Satoshi Nakamoto incorporated an interesting combination of computer sciences and economics The paper argues the limitations …
2020
Level: mittel
What influence do changes in tax policy or state decisions on expenditure have on economic growth? For decades, this question has been controversially debated.
2020
Level: leicht
One of the pluralist theories which has gained prominence following the 2008 financial crisis is Hyman Minsky and his Financial Instability Hypothesis (FIH). Minsky was unique in viewing balance sheets and financial flows as the primary components of capitalist economies, and his focus on the financial system meant he was well-equipped for foresee a crisis much like 2008. Although he died long before 2008 his framework anticipated many of the processes which led to the crash, particularly increased risk-taking and financial innovation which would outstrip the abilities of regulators and central banks to manage the system.
Level: leicht
Ist das BIP wirklich der Wert, an welchem wir den Fortschritt eines Landes und einer Gesellschaft messen sollten? Wir sollten über den Punkt hinaus kommen, an welchem wirtschaftlicher Erfolg mit Wirtschaftswachstum und gesellschaftlichem Fortschritt gleichgesetzt wird. Stattdessen könnte die Art, wie wir wirtschaften, als Mittel zum Zweck für eine Gesellschaft dienen, die ihren Wohlstand neu definiert und nicht mehr von quantitativem Wachstum abhängig macht.
 
Complexity economics focuses on interactions and interdependencies between individuals and structures in economic systems. Those are systems of organised complexity. High importance is given to the analysis of networks.
 
Der Fokus der Komplexitätsökonomik liegt auf den Interaktionen und Wechselwirkungen zwischen Individuen und Strukturen wirtschaftlicher Systeme. Diese werden als Systeme organisierter Komplexität aufgefasst. Ein besonderes Augenmerk liegt auf der Analyse von Netzwerken.
2016
Level: leicht
Der große Zwiespalt zwischen Effizienz und Gerechtigkeit Realität oder Ideologie Till van Treeck Quelle van Treeck Till and Janina Urban Wirtschaft neu denken Blinde Flecken in der Lehrbuchökonomie iRights Media 2016 Das Buch kann hier bestellt werden http irights media de publikationen wirtschaft neu denken Rezensierte Bücher Mankiw N G …
2016
Level: leicht
Unser Ziel ist es, drei Lehrbücher auf den in ihnen verwendeten Ordnungsbegriff zu untersuchen.
2017
Level: leicht
This article reviews insights of existing literature on global care chains. A specific focus is laid on the impact that the refugee crisis has on global care chains and in turn how the crisis impacts the de-skilling of the women in the migrant workforce.
2018
Level: mittel
How can we establish new institutions and practices in order to use fare-free public transport as a beacon for sustainable mobility and a low-carbon lifestyle? The author of this essay elaborates on how practice theory and institutional economics can help to answer this question.

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