681 Ergebnisse

2021
Level: mittel
This is a new online course at bachelor level. It presents an introduction into macroeconomics with a specific focus on the euro area. The theoretical part provides a critical presentation of the two key macroeconomic models: the (neo)classical approach and the Keynesian approach. This allows a comparative analysis of important macroeconomic topics: unemployment inflation government debt and Modern Monetary Theory banks and financial crises. The policy-oriented part discusses the monetary policy of the ECB and the specific challenges for fiscal policy in the euro area. The course also presents other euro area specific topics: Optimum currency area, euro crises, Next Generation EU and Green New Deal.
2022
Level: leicht
Die Evolutionäre und Institutionelle Ökonomie ist ein ökonomisches Paradigma, in welchem sozialer und ökonomischer Wandel eine zentrale Bedeutung einnehmen. In dieser heterodoxen Rolle außerhalb des wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Mainstreams sehen einige die Evolutionsökonomie als eine Teildisziplin der Wirtschaftswissenschaften, die sich mit dynamischen Aspekten wirtschaftlichen Austausches befasst; für andere stellt sie eine Revolution wirtschaftstheoretischen Denkens dar. (vgl. Berendt/Glückler: 13 f.) Die Institutionelle Ökonomie zeigt Erklärungsansätze für wirtschaftliche Prozesse auf und betont, dass diese nicht ausschließlich durch „individuelles Rationalverhalten“ geprägt werden. Die Notwendigkeit von Institutionen wird betont, da ein individuelles, rationales Verhalten zu einer negativen Beeinflussung der Gemeinschaft führen kann und somit die Lösung über Institutionen erfolgen muss. (vgl. Nee, 2005: 49 ff)
2019
Level: mittel
In this essay the author reviews empirical studies in economics that analyze factors behind the rise of nationalist and populist parties in Western countries. He stresses that economic factors (e.g., trade shocks and economic crisis) play a crucial role in the rise of populist parties; however, the discussion of mechanisms driving this trend remains unsatisfying
2020
Level: leicht
This module examines current socio-political issues through the lens of pluralism, that is pluralism of theory, pluralism of method and interdisciplinary pluralism
2015
Level: mittel
Obwohl der Begriff „der Markt“ (in der Einzahl) andauernd – sowohl in der Theorie als auch in Alltagsdiskurse – mit einer großen Selbstverständlichkeit verwendet wird, hat er eine Geschichte, die fast 100 Jahre zurückgeht. Diese Begrifflichkeit wurde erstmals in der Österreichischen Schule der Nationalökonomie, und zwar von Ludwig Mises und Friedrich Hayek, und von Ordoliberalen wie Walter Eucken oder Wilhelm Röpke entwickelt.
2018
Level: leicht
This essay focuses on the sources of government revenue within the Middle East and North African (MENA) region and proposes the implementation of a regional tax reset through increased taxation and tax reforms, deregulation in the private sector and economic diversification to reduce macroeconomic volatilities caused by the hydrocarbon industry.
 
Neoclassical economics focuses on the allocation of scarce resources. Economic analysis is mainly concerned with determining the efficient allocation of resources in order to increase welfare.
2021
Level: leicht
The outbreak of COVID-19 has substantially accelerated the digitalization of the economy. Yet, this unprecedented growth of digital technology brought novel challenges to the labour market. Rise in income inequalities and precarious working conditions or polarization of jobs. In this essay, we try to assess what tools to use to counter these trends.
2016
Level: leicht
A review of: [1] Intermediate Microeconomics, H.R. Varian [2] Mikrooekonomie, R.S. Pindyck, D.L. Rubinfeld [3] Grundzuege der mikrooekonomischen Theorie, J. Schumann, U. Meyer, W. Stroebele
2020
Level: leicht
Michael Kalecki famously remarked “I have found out what economics is; it is the science of confusing stocks with flows”. Stock-Flow Consistent (SFC) models were developed precisely to address this kind of confusion. The basic intuition of SFC models is that the economy is built up as a set of intersecting balance sheets, where transactions between entities are called flows and the value of the assets/liabilities they hold are called stocks. Wages are a flow; bank deposits are a stock, and confusing the two directly is a category error. In this edition of the pluralist showcase I will first describe the logic of SFC models – which is worth exploring in depth – before discussing empirical calibration and applications of the models. Warning that there is a little more maths in this post than usual (i.e. some), but you should be able to skip those parts and still easily get the picture.
2020
Level: leicht
Exploring Economics, an open-source e-learning platform, giving you the opportunity to discover & study a variety of economic theories, topics, and methods.
2021
Level: leicht
What made the false assumption that saving the economy at all cost during a pandemic so popular? This paper discusses different pathways through the COVID-19 pandemic at national and international level, and their consequences on the health of citizens and their economies.
2021
Level: leicht
Als Weltwährung wird die abstrakte Idee einer weltweit gültigen Währung verstanden, mit der manche Ökonomen das derzeitige Weltwährungssystem ersetzt sehen wollen.
 
Evolutionary economics focuses on economic change. Hence processes of change such as growth, innovation, structural and technological change, as well as economic development in general are analysed. Evolutionary economics often gives emphasis to populations and (sub-)systems.
2020
Level: leicht
One method of economic modelling that has become increasingly popular in academia, government and the private sector is Agent Based Models, or ABM. These simulate the actions and interactions of thousands or even millions of people to try to understand the economy – for this reason ABM was once described to me as being “like Sim City without the graphics”. One advantage of ABM is that it is flexible, since you can choose how many agents there are (an agent just means some kind of 'economic decision maker' like a firm, consumer, worker or government); how they behave (do they use complicated or simple rules to make decisions?); as well as the environment they act in, then just run the simulation and see what happens as they interact over time.
2020
Level: leicht
As the Covid-19 fueled economic downturn begins to intensify this winter, an extended study of the Italian cooperative sector’s historical resilience in times of crisis can serve as a learning experience for other countries seeking to create policies that foster more stable economies, with job security, care for marginalized communities and adequate counter-cyclical policies. Particularly, the Italian cooperative sector’s contributions to three aspects should be noted in closing. Firstly, the innovative phenomenon of cooperative enterprises has contributed to social inclusion of immigrant communities, the activation of youth, the unemployed and people with disabilities, a true compensation for both a market and state failure. Secondly, they have contributed to a reduction in income and wealth inequalities at a time when the issue of inequality is of global significance. Thirdly, the Italian cooperative movement has helped local communities revitalize in the face of demographic shifts and rendered them more resilient to the ravages of globalization. Each of these in their own right is a remarkable achievement.
2020
Level: mittel
In diesem Text aus der Reihe "Exploring Economics - Foundations" werden die Grundlagen der Internationalen Politischen Ökonomie als interdisziplinäre wissenschaftliche Strömung dargestellt.
2021
Level: leicht
Stratification economics is defined as a systemic and empirically grounded approach to addressing intergroup inequality. Stratification economics integrates economics, sociology and social psychology to distinctively analyze inequality across groups that are socially differentiated, be it by race, ethnicity, gender, caste, sexuality, religion or any other social differentiation.
2017
Level: mittel
One hundred years ago the idea of 'the economy' didn't exist. Now, improving the economy has come to be seen as perhaps the most important task facing modern societies. Politics and policymaking are conducted in the language of economics and economic logic shapes how political issues are thought about and addressed.
2018
Level: mittel
In this essay, the author takes a critical perspective on the pursuit of growth as the solution for providing for environmental sustainability and economic stability in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Drawing from the framework of dependency theory and presenting brief insights into European core-periphery relations the author then argues for the implementation of an alternative strategy to development that is built around the concept of self-reliance.
2021
Level: leicht
The last 15 years have seen extensive research into ecosystem service valuation (ESV), spurred by the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment in 2005 (Baveye, Baveye & Gowdy, 2016). Ecosystem services are defined as “the benefits people obtain from ecosystems” (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, p.V). For example, ecosystems provide the service of sequestering carbon which helps regulate the climate. Valuation means giving ecosystems or their services a monetary price, for example researchers have estimated that the carbon sequestration services of the Mediterranean Sea is between 100 and 1500 million euros per year. The idea of ESV was a response to the overuse of natural resources and degradation of ecosystems, allegedly due to their undervaluation and exclusion from the monetary economy. ESV can be used (1) for policy decision-making, for example allocating funding to a reforestation project (2) for setting payments to people who increase ecosystem services, for example a farmer increasing the organic carbon content of their soil, and (3) for determining fees for people who degrade ecosystem services, for example a company that causes deforestation.
2022
Level: leicht
Die marxistische Ökonomie stellt eine Wirtschaftstheorie dar, die im Wesentlichen auf Karl Marx Hauptwerk „Das Kapital“ beruht. Aufbauend auf den Ansätzen der klassischen Nationalökonomie werden hierbei die kapitalistischen Produktionsweisen sowie der Grundwiderspruch zwischen Kapital und Arbeit analysiert und kritisiert (vgl. Kirchgässner 1988, S. 128). Ausgehend von der marxistischen Kapitalismuskritik werden insbesondere das Wesen der kapitalistischen Ausbeutung und der Klassenkonflikt zwischen Bourgeoisie und Proletariat behandelt (vgl. Utz 1982, S. 22-23).
2020
Level: mittel
What influence do changes in tax policy or state decisions on expenditure have on economic growth? For decades, this question has been controversially debated.
Level: leicht
Capitalism is dissolving boundaries - not only in the sense of ever-expanding global trade flows, but also in the concrete everyday working lives of individuals. What implications does this have for our understanding of freedom, work and borders?
2019
Level: leicht
In this essay the authors take a look at how welfare could be provided in a degrowth society.
 
Der Fokus der Neoklassik liegt auf dem Umgang mit knappen Ressourcen. Analysen beschäftigen sich mit der effizienten Allokation von Ressourcen, um den Wohlstand zu vermehren.
2017
Level: leicht
This paper starts with an evaluation of three common arguments against pluralism in economics: (1) the claim that economics is already pluralist, (2) the argument that if there was the need for greater plurality, it would emerge on its own, and (3) the assertion that pluralism means ‘anything goes’ and is thus unscientific. Pluralist responses to all three arguments are summarized. The third argument is identified to relate to a greater challenge for pluralism: an epistemological trade-off between diversity and consensus that suggests moving from a discussion about ‘pros’ and ‘cons’ towards a discussion about the adequate degree of plurality. We instantiate the trade-off by showing how it originates from two main challenges: the need to derive adequate quality criteria for a pluralist economics, and the necessity to propose strategies that ensure the communication across different research programs. The paper concludes with some strategies to meet these challenges.
2021
Level: leicht
Inklusion ist ein Konzept, das unser Wirtschaftssystem existenziell in Frage stellt. Bei konsequenter Anwendung würden wir uns von der Vormachtstellung der Erwerbsarbeit verabschieden. Ein Beitrag von Clara Porak.
 
Institutional economics focuses on the role of social institutions in terms of laws or contracts, but also those of social norms and patterns of human behaviour that are connected to the social organisation of production, distribution and consumption in the economy.
 
Austrian economics focuses on the economic coordination of individuals in a market economy. Austrian economics emphasises individualism, subjectivism, laissez-faire politics, uncertainty and the role of the entrepreneur, amongst others.
2018
Level: mittel
Wie einseitig ist die Wirtschaftswissenschaft? Studienreihe der Universität Siegen.
 
Der Fokus des Postkeynesianismus liegt auf der Analyse kapitalistischer Ökonomien. Diese werden als sehr produktive, jedoch instabile und konfliktive Systeme angesehen. Wirtschaftliche Aktivität wird von der effektiven Nachfrage bestimmt, die in der Regel keine Vollbeschäftigung und Vollauslastung der Kapazitäten garantieren kann.

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