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2020
Level: leicht
Marx’s theory of the falling rate of profit is not only empirically borne out, but the theory he proposed seems to describe accurately how that happens. Furthermore, the whole process is useful for understanding the history of contemporary capitalism.
2019
Level: mittel
Modern authors have identified a variety of striking economic patterns, most importantly those involving the distribution of incomes and profit rates. In recent times, the econophysics literature has demonstrated that bottom incomes follow an exponential distribution, top incomes follow a Pareto, profit rates display a tent-shaped distribution. This paper is concerned with the theory underlying various explanations of these phenomena. Traditional econophysics relies on energy-conserving “particle collision” models in which simulation is often used to derive a stationary distribution. Those in the Jaynesian tradition rely on entropy maximization, subject to certain constraints, to infer the final distribution. This paper argues that economic phenomena should be derived as results of explicit economic processes. For instance, the entry and exit process motivated by supply decisions of firms underlies the drift-diffusion form of wage, interest and profit rates arbitrage. These processes give rise to stationary distributions that turn out to be also entropy maximizing. In arbitrage approach, entropy maximization is a result. In the Jaynesian approaches, entropy maximization is the means.
2021
Level: leicht
An der Leuphana Universität Lüneburg findet jedes Jahr das Leuphana-Semester statt, das alle Studierende im ersten Semester durchlaufen, bevor sie im zweiten Semester ins Fachstudium starten. Die Studierenden sollen in Projektseminaren wissenschaftliche Methoden kennen lernen und einüben, an konkreten gesellschaftlichen Problemen erproben und interdisziplinäre Lösungswege aufzeigen
2022
Level: leicht
Dieses Projektseminar wurde ursprünglich im WS 2021 22 an der Leuphana Universität Lüneburg gehalten Projektleiter und Verfasser Christian Fahrbach Die übergeordnete Forschungsfrage des Projektsseminars lautet Können Low Profit Investitionen einen zusätzlichen Beitrag zur Umsetzung der SDG leisten Die Studierenden tragen anhand eines bestimmten SDG X zur Beantwortung der übergeordneten Forschungsfrage …
2009
Level: leicht
A concise introduction to Marx's Labour Theory of Value, the three ratios and the falling rate of profit hypothesis.
Level: leicht
The guides provide links to texts by Marx and Engels and present possible questions to discuss in study groups. The texts include Capial Volumes I – III, Economic & Philosophical Manuscripts or “Value, Price and Profit”.
2016
Level: leicht
The podcast exposes the concept and principles of co-operatives and the three main types of co-operatives: the consumer, credit and farmers buying and selling co-operatives. Furthermore, the history of the co-operative movement is presented. The authors draw the line from co-operatives to "degrowth" by arguing that these organisations discourage profit maximisation due to their ownership structure, their social purpose and their primacy of people over capital. The value of the members' co-operative share does not increase with the growth of a co-operative and it can not be used for speculation. Finally, the authors give examples for current co-operatives which empower (local) communities fostering social justice and environmentalism.
2019
Level: schwer
This paper attempts to clarify how the European economic crisis from 2007 onwards can be understood from the perspective of a Marxian monetary theory of value that emphasizes intrinsic, structural flaws regarding capitalist reproduction. Chapter two provides an empirical description of the European economic crisis, which to some extent already reflects the structural theoretical framework presented in chapter three. Regarding the theoretical framework Michael Heinrich's interpretation of 'the' Marxian monetary theory of value will be presented. Heinrich identifies connections between production and realization, between profit and interest rate as well as between industrial and fictitious capital, which represent contradictory tendencies for which capitalism does not have simple balancing processes. In the context of a discussion of 'structural logical aspects' of Marx's Critique of the Political Economy, explanatory deficits of Heinrich's approach are analyzed. In the following, it is argued that Fred Moseley's view of these 'structural logical aspects' allows empirical 'applications' of Marxian monetary theories of value. It is concluded that a Marxian monetary theory of value, with the characteristics of expansive capital accumulation and its limitations, facilitates a structural analysis of the European economic crisis from 2007 onwards. In this line of argument, expansive production patterns are expressed, among other things, in global restructuring processes, while consumption limitations are mitigated by expansive financial markets and shifts in ex-port destinations.
2017
Level: mittel
Wie werden demokratische Übergänge zu einem Leben und Wirtschaften möglich, deren Qualität und Stabilität nicht vom permanenten ökonomischen Wachstum abhängen? Reicht dafür eine Bottom-up-Strategie? Reichen all die Non-profit-Unternehmen, Tauschläden und Kulturen des Selbermachens als Keime einer im Entstehen begriffenen Postwachstumsökonomie und -gesellschaft?
2019
Level: leicht
Um die Klimakrise und ihre Ursachen wirklich zu bekämpfen, müssen die derzeitige Wirtschaftsweise grundlegender hinterfragt und Möglichkeiten einer sozial-ökologischen Transformation untersucht werden. Ein Beitrag von Elena Hofferberth.
2022
Level: leicht
‘We cannot afford their peace & We cannot bear their wars’: ​​​​​​​Value, Exploitation, Profitability Crises & ‘Rectification’
2018
Level: mittel
Diese Webseite widmet sich der Vielfalt bestehender ökonomischer Theorien und Methoden. Orientiere Dich, vergleiche, entdecke und studiere die unterschiedlichen ökonomischen Perspektiven.
2018
Level: leicht
This essay focuses on the sources of government revenue within the Middle East and North African (MENA) region and proposes the implementation of a regional tax reset through increased taxation and tax reforms, deregulation in the private sector and economic diversification to reduce macroeconomic volatilities caused by the hydrocarbon industry.
2022
Level: leicht
Die marxistische Ökonomie stellt eine Wirtschaftstheorie dar, die im Wesentlichen auf Karl Marx Hauptwerk „Das Kapital“ beruht. Aufbauend auf den Ansätzen der klassischen Nationalökonomie werden hierbei die kapitalistischen Produktionsweisen sowie der Grundwiderspruch zwischen Kapital und Arbeit analysiert und kritisiert (vgl. Kirchgässner 1988, S. 128). Ausgehend von der marxistischen Kapitalismuskritik werden insbesondere das Wesen der kapitalistischen Ausbeutung und der Klassenkonflikt zwischen Bourgeoisie und Proletariat behandelt (vgl. Utz 1982, S. 22-23).
 
Post-Keynesians focus on the analysis of capitalist economies, perceived as highly productive, but unstable and conflictive systems. Economic activity is determined by effective demand, which is typically insufficient to generate full employment and full utilisation of capacity.
2016
Level: leicht
Diese Webseite widmet sich der Vielfalt bestehender ökonomischer Theorien und Methoden. Orientiere Dich, vergleiche, entdecke und studiere die unterschiedlichen ökonomischen Perspektiven.
2019
Level: leicht
In this essay the authors argue for a wider concept of care work that includes community building, civic engagement and environmental activism. On the basis of the case of Cargonomia, a grassroot initiative in Budapest, they show that such a wider concept of care work could allow for different narratives that promote sustainable lifestyles with a milder environmental and social impact on the planet and its communities.
2021
Level: leicht
Ökologische und gesellschaftliche Faktoren finden auch innerhalb der Startup-Szene zunehmend Beachtung. Aber die Diskussion über die Verbindung von Gemeinnützigkeit und wirtschaftlicher Genügsamkeit steht noch am Anfang. Ein Beitrag von Daniel Bartel.
2019
Level: mittel
Approaching the law of nature that determines all forms of economy. The bulk of economic theory addresses the economic process by setting out on a catalogue of aspects, seeking the laws in the aspects and hoping to get together a reliable view of the whole.
 
Der Fokus des Postkeynesianismus liegt auf der Analyse kapitalistischer Ökonomien. Diese werden als sehr produktive, jedoch instabile und konfliktive Systeme angesehen. Wirtschaftliche Aktivität wird von der effektiven Nachfrage bestimmt, die in der Regel keine Vollbeschäftigung und Vollauslastung der Kapazitäten garantieren kann.
2020
Level: leicht
A central question in development economics literature is, “Why do countries stay poor?” The key disagreements are whether the lack of economic growth stems from institutions or from geography (Nunn 2009). From an institutional perspective, hostile tariff regimes and commodity price dependencies form a barrier to a sectoral shift that would otherwise lead to economic development in developing countries (Blink and Dorton 2011) (Stiglitz 2006).[i]
2020
Level: leicht
With the onset of an economic crisis that has been universally acknowledged since the end of March, two main questions arise: To what extent is the corona pandemic the starting point (or even the cause) of this crisis? And secondly: can the aid programmes that have been adopted prevent a deep and prolonged recession?
2020
Level: leicht
Firms are the primary places where economic activity takes place in modern capitalist economies: they are where most stuff is produced; where many of us spend 40 hours a week; and where big decisions are made about how to allocate resources. Establishing how they work is hugely important because it helps us to understand patterns of production and consumption, including how firms will react to changes in economic conditions and policy. And a well-established literature – led by post-Keynesians and institutionalists – holds that the best way to determine how firms work is to…wait for it...ask firms how they work. This a clearly sensible proposition that is contested in economics for some reason, but we’ll ignore the controversy here and just explore the theory that springs from this approach.
2021
Level: leicht
Um Transformationsprozesse nicht nur zukunftsfähig, sondern auch geschlechtergerecht gestalten zu können, müssen die Erkenntnisse der Feministischen Ökonomie einbezogen werden. Ein Beitrag von Ulrike Knobloch.
 
Der Fokus der Marxistischen Politischen Ökonomik liegt auf der Ausbeutung von Arbeit durch Kapital. Die Ökonomie wird nicht als neutrale Austausch- und Kooperationsplattform gesehen, sondern als historische und politische Ausprägung, die von asymmetrischen Machtverhältnissen, Ideologie und sozialen Konflikten geprägt ist.
2018
Level: leicht
In this essay, the principle of capital accumulation, as well as the idea of homo economicus as the basis of the growth model, are located and analyzed from a feminist perspective. The sufficiency approach is presented as an alternative to these two economic logics.
2020
Level: leicht
This is an overview of (possibly transformative) proposals to address the economic consequences of the corona crisis
2020
Level: leicht
Michael Kalecki famously remarked “I have found out what economics is; it is the science of confusing stocks with flows”. Stock-Flow Consistent (SFC) models were developed precisely to address this kind of confusion. The basic intuition of SFC models is that the economy is built up as a set of intersecting balance sheets, where transactions between entities are called flows and the value of the assets/liabilities they hold are called stocks. Wages are a flow; bank deposits are a stock, and confusing the two directly is a category error. In this edition of the pluralist showcase I will first describe the logic of SFC models – which is worth exploring in depth – before discussing empirical calibration and applications of the models. Warning that there is a little more maths in this post than usual (i.e. some), but you should be able to skip those parts and still easily get the picture.
2020
Level: mittel
In the history of the social sciences, few individuals have exerted as much influence as has Jeremy Bentham. His attempt to become “the Newton of morals” has left a marked impression upon the methodology and form of analysis that social sciences like economics and political science have chosen as modus operandi.
2020
Level: leicht
The general idea of a Job Guarantee (JG) is that the government offers employment to everybody ready, willing and able to work for a living wage in the last instance as an Employer of Last Resort. The concept tackles societal needs that are not satisfied by market forces and the systemic characteristic of unemployment in capitalist societies. Being a central part of the Modern Monetary Theory (MMT), attention for the JG concept rose in recent years.
2020
Level: leicht
Hamilton argues that economics lacks the political economy context in order to understand racism, and demonstrates how racism is embedded in the political economy of America.
2021
Level: leicht
The last 15 years have seen extensive research into ecosystem service valuation (ESV), spurred by the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment in 2005 (Baveye, Baveye & Gowdy, 2016). Ecosystem services are defined as “the benefits people obtain from ecosystems” (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, p.V). For example, ecosystems provide the service of sequestering carbon which helps regulate the climate. Valuation means giving ecosystems or their services a monetary price, for example researchers have estimated that the carbon sequestration services of the Mediterranean Sea is between 100 and 1500 million euros per year. The idea of ESV was a response to the overuse of natural resources and degradation of ecosystems, allegedly due to their undervaluation and exclusion from the monetary economy. ESV can be used (1) for policy decision-making, for example allocating funding to a reforestation project (2) for setting payments to people who increase ecosystem services, for example a farmer increasing the organic carbon content of their soil, and (3) for determining fees for people who degrade ecosystem services, for example a company that causes deforestation.

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Um sich weiterhin für Pluralismus und Vielfalt in der Ökonomik einzusetzen, benötigt das Netzwerk Plurale Ökonomik e.V. Unterstützung von Leuten wie dir. Deshalb freuen wir uns sehr über eine einmalige oder dauerhafte Spende.

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