Are there distinct European traditions in economics? Is modern economics homogenous and American? The volume includes case studies of the UK, Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Greece. Each of these examines the conditions relating to the supply of, and demand for, economists. These include: the growth of higher education, the development of postgraduate training in economics, international linkages, both within Europe and outside it, economic ideas and professionalization, and involvement in economic policy-making and public affairs. Whilst each chapter is attentive to particular national features, they also place the development of economics in the context of the postwar movement towards European integration.