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343 Ergebnisse

2020
Level: mittel
An essay of the writing workshop on Nigeria’s Readiness for and the Effect of the Fourth Industrial Revolution
2017
Level: leicht
This paper starts with an evaluation of three common arguments against pluralism in economics: (1) the claim that economics is already pluralist, (2) the argument that if there was the need for greater plurality, it would emerge on its own, and (3) the assertion that pluralism means ‘anything goes’ and is thus unscientific. Pluralist responses to all three arguments are summarized. The third argument is identified to relate to a greater challenge for pluralism: an epistemological trade-off between diversity and consensus that suggests moving from a discussion about ‘pros’ and ‘cons’ towards a discussion about the adequate degree of plurality. We instantiate the trade-off by showing how it originates from two main challenges: the need to derive adequate quality criteria for a pluralist economics, and the necessity to propose strategies that ensure the communication across different research programs. The paper concludes with some strategies to meet these challenges.
2019
Level: leicht
By conducting a discourse analysis (SKAD) in the field of academic economics textbooks, this paper aims at reconstructing frames and identity options offered to undergraduate students relating to the questions ‘Why study economics?’ and ‘Who do I become by studying economics?’. The analysis showed three major frames and respective identity offerings, all of which are contextualized theoretically, with prominent reference to the Foucauldian reflection of the science of Political Economy. Surprisingly, none of them encourages the student to think critically, as could have been expected in a pedagogical context. Taken together, economics textbooks appear as a “total structure of actions brought to bear upon possible action” (Foucault), therefore, as a genuine example of Foucauldian power structures.
2019
Level: mittel
The course will teach students to analyze the goals, implementation, and outcomes of economic policy.
 
Der Fokus der Komplexitätsökonomik liegt auf den Interaktionen und Wechselwirkungen zwischen Individuen und Strukturen wirtschaftlicher Systeme. Diese werden als Systeme organisierter Komplexität aufgefasst. Ein besonderes Augenmerk liegt auf der Analyse von Netzwerken.
2020
Level: leicht
Understanding international trade is central to economics and is currently a hot political issue. It’s an area where popular perceptions of mainstream economics are low, since they have historically missed some important downsides of trade agreements, especially the hollowing out of former manufacturing hubs in the Western world. et economists have for long time had a theory of trade with an impressive amount of scientific clout behind it: the gravity trade model.
2021
Level: mittel
This course will survey contemporary heterodox approaches to economic research, both from a microeconomic and a macroeconomic perspective. Topics will be treated from a general, critical, and mathematical standpoint.
2021
Level: leicht
The premise of this workshop is that we, as knowledge producers - especially within westernized universities (Grosfoguel, 2013), are significantly implicated in neoliberal imaginaries that are often in service of hierarchical, binary, competitive and linear narratives of growth as civilizational progress.
2015
Level: leicht
This course is designed to provide students with an understanding of work-related gender issues and to enable students to analyze the issues using the tools of economics.
2016
Level: leicht
This chapter discusses the role of gender in economic relations, processes, and outcomes. Gender differences in economic outcomes such as labor force participation and wages have received growing attention from economists in the last several decades – a positive and much needed development in economic thinking.
2019
Level: mittel
In this essay the author reviews empirical studies in economics that analyze factors behind the rise of nationalist and populist parties in Western countries. He stresses that economic factors (e.g., trade shocks and economic crisis) play a crucial role in the rise of populist parties; however, the discussion of mechanisms driving this trend remains unsatisfying
2019
Level: mittel
As opposed to the conventional over-simplified assumption of self-interested individuals, strong evidence points towards the presence of heterogeneous other-regarding preferences in agents. Incorporating social preferences – specifically, trust and reciprocity - and recognizing the non-constancy of these preferences across individuals can help models better represent the reality.
2021
Level: leicht
The outbreak of COVID-19 has substantially accelerated the digitalization of the economy. Yet, this unprecedented growth of digital technology brought novel challenges to the labour market. Rise in income inequalities and precarious working conditions or polarization of jobs. In this essay, we try to assess what tools to use to counter these trends.
2022
Level: leicht
Die Evolutionäre und Institutionelle Ökonomie ist ein ökonomisches Paradigma, in welchem sozialer und ökonomischer Wandel eine zentrale Bedeutung einnehmen. In dieser heterodoxen Rolle außerhalb des wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Mainstreams sehen einige die Evolutionsökonomie als eine Teildisziplin der Wirtschaftswissenschaften, die sich mit dynamischen Aspekten wirtschaftlichen Austausches befasst; für andere stellt sie eine Revolution wirtschaftstheoretischen Denkens dar. (vgl. Berendt/Glückler: 13 f.) Die Institutionelle Ökonomie zeigt Erklärungsansätze für wirtschaftliche Prozesse auf und betont, dass diese nicht ausschließlich durch „individuelles Rationalverhalten“ geprägt werden. Die Notwendigkeit von Institutionen wird betont, da ein individuelles, rationales Verhalten zu einer negativen Beeinflussung der Gemeinschaft führen kann und somit die Lösung über Institutionen erfolgen muss. (vgl. Nee, 2005: 49 ff)
 
Der Fokus der Evolutorischen Ökonomik liegt auf der Erklärung wirtschaftlichen Wandels. Analysiert werden Wandlungsprozesse, wie Wirtschaftswachstum, Innovationen, Strukturwandel, technologischen Wandel, institutionellen Wandel oder allgemein die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung.
2020
Level: leicht
Economists like to base their theories on individual decision making. Individuals, the idea goes, have their own interests and preferences, and if we don’t include these in our theory we can’t be sure how people will react to changes in their economic circumstances and policy. While there may be social influences, in an important sense the buck stops with individuals. Understanding how individuals process information to come to decisions about their health, wealth and happiness is crucial. You can count me as someone who thinks that on the whole, this is quite a sensible view.
2021
Level: leicht
“Economics is the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses1.” This is how Lionel Robbins came to define economics in the early 1930s and there is a good chance that many of you heard a variant of this definition in your first Economics 101 lecture.
Level: leicht
Education policy seeks to ensure equality in access, equality within the classroom and in teaching- learning processes, and equality in outcomes. This course encourages students to assess and evaluate the extent to which these objectives are met in practice and the ways in which educational outcomes are shaped by, as well as alter, gendered social norms.
2018
Level: mittel
Diese Webseite widmet sich der Vielfalt bestehender ökonomischer Theorien und Methoden. Orientiere Dich, vergleiche, entdecke und studiere die unterschiedlichen ökonomischen Perspektiven.
2018
Level: leicht
This essay focuses on the sources of government revenue within the Middle East and North African (MENA) region and proposes the implementation of a regional tax reset through increased taxation and tax reforms, deregulation in the private sector and economic diversification to reduce macroeconomic volatilities caused by the hydrocarbon industry.
2019
Level: mittel
Approaching the law of nature that determines all forms of economy. The bulk of economic theory addresses the economic process by setting out on a catalogue of aspects, seeking the laws in the aspects and hoping to get together a reliable view of the whole.
2020
Level: leicht
The Great Recession 2.0 is unfolding before our very eyes. It is still in its early phase. But dynamics have been set in motion that are not easily stopped, or even slowed. If the virus effect were resolved by early summer—as some politicians wishfully believe—the economic dynamics set in motion would still continue. The US and global economies have been seriously ‘wounded’ and will not recover easily or soon. Those who believe it will be a ‘V-shape’ recovery are deluding themselves. Economists among them should know better but are among the most confused. They only need to look at historical parallels to convince themselves otherwise.
2020
Level: leicht
Steve Keen analyses how mainstream economics fails when confronted with the covid-19-pandemic. Mainstream economics has propagated the dismantling of the state and the globalization of production - both of which make the crisis now so devastating. More fundamentally, mainstream economics deals with market systems, when what is needed to limit the virus’s spread is a command system.
2020
Level: leicht
Firms are the primary places where economic activity takes place in modern capitalist economies: they are where most stuff is produced; where many of us spend 40 hours a week; and where big decisions are made about how to allocate resources. Establishing how they work is hugely important because it helps us to understand patterns of production and consumption, including how firms will react to changes in economic conditions and policy. And a well-established literature – led by post-Keynesians and institutionalists – holds that the best way to determine how firms work is to…wait for it...ask firms how they work. This a clearly sensible proposition that is contested in economics for some reason, but we’ll ignore the controversy here and just explore the theory that springs from this approach.
2020
Level: mittel
What influence do changes in tax policy or state decisions on expenditure have on economic growth? For decades, this question has been controversially debated.
2020
Level: leicht
One method of economic modelling that has become increasingly popular in academia, government and the private sector is Agent Based Models, or ABM. These simulate the actions and interactions of thousands or even millions of people to try to understand the economy – for this reason ABM was once described to me as being “like Sim City without the graphics”. One advantage of ABM is that it is flexible, since you can choose how many agents there are (an agent just means some kind of 'economic decision maker' like a firm, consumer, worker or government); how they behave (do they use complicated or simple rules to make decisions?); as well as the environment they act in, then just run the simulation and see what happens as they interact over time.
2020
Level: leicht
A historical glimpse of how economists of the 19th century debated the usefulness of mathematics to economics
2020
Level: mittel
In diesem Text aus der Reihe "Exploring Economics - Foundations" werden die Grundlagen der Internationalen Politischen Ökonomie als interdisziplinäre wissenschaftliche Strömung dargestellt.
2020
Level: leicht
As the Covid-19 fueled economic downturn begins to intensify this winter, an extended study of the Italian cooperative sector’s historical resilience in times of crisis can serve as a learning experience for other countries seeking to create policies that foster more stable economies, with job security, care for marginalized communities and adequate counter-cyclical policies. Particularly, the Italian cooperative sector’s contributions to three aspects should be noted in closing. Firstly, the innovative phenomenon of cooperative enterprises has contributed to social inclusion of immigrant communities, the activation of youth, the unemployed and people with disabilities, a true compensation for both a market and state failure. Secondly, they have contributed to a reduction in income and wealth inequalities at a time when the issue of inequality is of global significance. Thirdly, the Italian cooperative movement has helped local communities revitalize in the face of demographic shifts and rendered them more resilient to the ravages of globalization. Each of these in their own right is a remarkable achievement.
2021
Level: leicht
What made the false assumption that saving the economy at all cost during a pandemic so popular? This paper discusses different pathways through the COVID-19 pandemic at national and international level, and their consequences on the health of citizens and their economies.
 
Der Fokus der Verhaltensökonomik liegt auf dem beobachtbaren Verhalten von Menschen und deren Entscheidungen.
2013
Level: leicht
This paper provides a logical framework for complexity economics Complexity economics builds from the proposition that the economy is not necessarily in equilibrium economic agents firms consumers investors constantly change their actions and strategies in response to the outcome they mutually create This further changes the outcome which requires them …

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