Preisdiskriminierung (auch Preisdifferenzierung) beschreibt das Anbieten homogener Produkte zu unterschiedlichen Preisen. Vorraussetzung ist das Vorhandensein eines unvollkommenen Marktes, meist ist diese Art der Preispolitik nur für Unternehmen mit Monopolstellung möglich.
In this podcast, Laura Basu focuses on how capitalist markets and nation-states perpetuate structural racism.
Das Paradigma der ökologischen Ökonomie (Ecological Economics) stellt einen multidisziplinärern Ansatz dar, um ein ganzheitliches Bild der wachsenden ökologischen Probleme und ihrer Verflechtungen mit der Ökonomie zu erhalten. Sie beschäftigt sich mit Ressourcenknappheit, Umweltverschmutzung, Klimawandel, Nahrungsmittelknappheit oder sozialer Ungleichheit. Hierbei werden wissenschaftliche Disziplinen wie Ökologie, Ökonomie, Physik und zunehmend auch andere Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften (z.B. Soziologie oder Philosophie) herangezogen, mit dem Ziel, im ökonomischen Denken auch ökologische, ethische, politische, institutionelle und soziale Faktoren zu berücksichtigen. In diesem Zusammenhang werden nichtzuletzt deshalb auch wesentliche Grundannahmen der orthodoxen Ökonomie sehr kritisch betrachtet (Constanza 1989, Ayres 2008, Spash 2010).
This paper presents an overview of different models which explain financial crises, with the aim of understanding economic developments during and possibly after the Great Recession. In the first part approaches based on efficient markets and rational expectations hypotheses are analyzed, which however do not give any explanation for the occurrence of financial crises and thus cannot suggest any remedies for the present situation. A broad range of theoretical approaches analyzing financial crises from a medium term perspective is then discussed. Within this group we focused on the insights of Marx, Schumpeter, Wicksell, Hayek, Fisher, Keynes, Minsky, and Kindleberger. Subsequently the contributions of the Regulation School, the approach of Social Structures of Accumulation and Post-Keynesian approach, which focus on long-term developments and regime shifts in capitalist development, are presented. International approaches to finance and financial crises are integrated into the analyses. We address the issue of relevance of all these theories for the present crisis and draw some policy implications. The paper has the aim to find out to which extent the different approaches are able to explain the Great Recession, what visions they develop about future development of capitalism and to which extent these different approaches can be synthesized.
The European economic crisis from 2007 onwards in the context of a global crisis of over-production of capital - a Marxian monetary theory of value interpretation
This paper attempts to clarify how the European economic crisis from 2007 onwards can be understood from the perspective of a Marxian monetary theory of value that emphasizes intrinsic, structural flaws regarding capitalist reproduction. Chapter two provides an empirical description of the European economic crisis, which to some extent already reflects the structural theoretical framework presented in chapter three. Regarding the theoretical framework Michael Heinrich's interpretation of 'the' Marxian monetary theory of value will be presented. Heinrich identifies connections between production and realization, between profit and interest rate as well as between industrial and fictitious capital, which represent contradictory tendencies for which capitalism does not have simple balancing processes. In the context of a discussion of 'structural logical aspects' of Marx's Critique of the Political Economy, explanatory deficits of Heinrich's approach are analyzed. In the following, it is argued that Fred Moseley's view of these 'structural logical aspects' allows empirical 'applications' of Marxian monetary theories of value. It is concluded that a Marxian monetary theory of value, with the characteristics of expansive capital accumulation and its limitations, facilitates a structural analysis of the European economic crisis from 2007 onwards. In this line of argument, expansive production patterns are expressed, among other things, in global restructuring processes, while consumption limitations are mitigated by expansive financial markets and shifts in ex-port destinations.
This article provides a contextual framework for understanding the gendered dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic and its health, social, and economic outcomes. The pandemic has generated massive losses in lives, impacted people’s health, disrupted markets and livelihoods, and created profound reverberations in the home. In 112 countries that reported sex-disaggregated data on COVID-19 cases, men showed an overall higher infection rate than women, and an even higher mortality rate. However, women’s relatively high representation in sectors hardest hit by lockdown orders has translated into larger declines in employment for women than men in numerous countries. Evidence also indicates that stay-at-home orders have increased unpaid care workloads, which have fallen disproportionately to women. Further, domestic violence has increased in frequency and severity across countries. The article concludes that policy response strategies to the crisis by women leaders have contributed to more favorable outcomes compared to outcomes in countries led by men.
Use economic models to learn how prices and markets benefit society in the face of scarcity and then apply those models to analyze policy Jonathan Gruber edX Massachusetts Institute of Technology
This is an introductory level core course in macroeconomics for those expecting to take further courses in economics. It provides a theoretical and applied approach of introductory macroeconomics, with an international perspective and applications to account for the growing importance of the global economy and the rising openness of economies.
This short video visualizes the destabilizing effects financial markets can have on food prices, based on a paper by Jayati Ghosh. It introduces and explains the idea of future contracts and how those are used to speculate with basic food stuffs. After establishing the concepts, the video sketches out how the increase in those practices resulted in a substantial rise and later collapse of food prices around 2008 with severe consequences for many developing countries and their people.
Immer wieder sind in den letzten Jahren die Folgen einseitiger Lobby- und Marktmacht deutlich geworden – und wie schwierig es ist, sie zu begrenzen.
Mainstream inflation theories in economics do little to explain the recent acceleration in price increases. The associated economic policy recommendations further increase the misery of low-income groups.
Max Krahé explains the role of economic planning for a green transition.
This course will fundamentally ask whether we can, or even should use the word ‘decolonising’ in our pursuit of a better economics?
Für die Spieltheorie bedeutet eine kritische Masse, dass nicht die gesamte Gruppe von einer Strategie überzeugt werden muss, sondern dass es ausreicht, eine bestimmte Anzahl von Teilnehmern von dieser Strategie zu überzeugen. Ist dieser Schwellenwert überschritten, die kritische Masse erreicht, wird sich diese Strategie selbsttragend durchsetzen.
On July 2020 ZOE-Institute published a unique platform for transformative policymaking: Sustainable Prosperity. Building on insights from new economic thinking the platform provides knowledge about ideas, arguments and procedures that support effective promotion of political change. It aims to strengthen change makers in public policy institutions, who are working on an ambitious green and just transition. As such, it provides convincing arguments and policy ideas to overcome the reliance of economic policy on GDP growth
First the global mean is calculated from a matrix of three sets each containing three observations. Then the sum of squares is calculated. Lastly, the concept of degree of freedom is explained.
What made the false assumption that saving the economy at all cost during a pandemic so popular? This paper discusses different pathways through the COVID-19 pandemic at national and international level, and their consequences on the health of citizens and their economies.
After completing the module, participants should have gained a basic understanding of the economic school of thought referred to as "Modern Monetary Theory" and should be able to analyze the monetary processes at play in the economy and evaluate fiscal and monetary policy decisions from an MMT-perspective.
Ein ungebremster Klimawandel stellt eine existenzielle Bedrohung dar. Was bedeuten diese Erkenntnisse für die Ökonomik als Wissenschaft? Ich schlage eine neue Agenda für die Ökonomik des Klimawandels vor, die sich auf eine Kernfrage bezieht: Wie kann der nachhaltige Wandel erleichtert werden?
The goal of the course is to deepen students’ understanding of the Latin American development experience by viewing it through a gender lens.
The Atlas of Economic Complexity is an award-winning data visualization tool that allows people to explore global trade flows across markets, track these dynamics over time and discover new growth opportunities for every country.
Die Economists4Future wollten eine Diskussion über notwendige Konsequenzen der Klimakrise für die Wirtschaftswissenschaften anstoßen – was bisher aber kaum gelungen ist. Das liegt vor allem daran, dass der neoklassische Mainstream weiterhin Diskursverweigerung betreibt. Ein Beitrag von Franziska M. Hoffart und Michael Roos.
This is an introductory course into economics that navigates the intellectual history of political economy in a self-contained and non-technical manner. The course centres on the classical concept of political economy by emphasizing the moral and ethical problems that markets solve or may not solve.
Eine erfolgreiche Wirtschaftstransformation hängt von einer Veränderung der ökonomischen Praktiken der Akteure ab. Die „Spirale transformativen Lernens“ identifiziert, welche Fähigkeiten dafür entscheidend sind.
Islamic finance's phenomenal growth owes to the Shariah compliant nature of its financial instruments. Shariah forbids the charging of interest (Riba) and instead promulgates risk-sharing and trade-based modes of financing. The Islamic financial industry has been subject to both critique and admiration. Critics argue that Islamic instruments (bearing debt-based structures) differ from their conventional counterparts only in legal lexicon and not in economic impact.
The world of economics is changing. Years of turmoil in the global economy mean that nothing will ever be quite the same again. This is the starting point and theme of this radically revised Economist books classic.
This book analyzes the transition of chocolate from an exotic curiosity to an Atlantic commodity. It shows how local, inter-regional, and Atlantic markets interacted with one another and with imperial political economies. It explains how these interactions, intertwined with the resilience of local artisanal production, promoted the partial democratization of chocolate consumption as well as economic growth.
Mr Minsky long argued markets were crisis prone His moment has arrived The Wall Street Journal In his seminal work Minsky presents his groundbreaking financial theory of investment one that is startlingly relevant today He explains why the American economy has experienced periods of debilitating inflation rising unemployment and marked …
Gender Development and Globalization is the leading primer on global feminist economics and development. Gender is a development issue because social considerations are not easily incorporated into institutions such as policies, regulations, markets and organizations. This process is often referred to as the mainstreaming of gender in development institutions.
The 2007–08 credit crisis and the long recession that followed brutally exposed the economic and social costs of financialization. Understanding what lay behind these events, the rise of “fictitious capital” and its opaque logic, is crucial to grasping the social and political conditions under which we live. Yet, for most people, the operations of the financial system remain shrouded in mystery.
Professor Jennifer Clapp explains the dynamics of financialization of land and agricultural commodities in Subsaharan Africa. She points to the historical roots of accelerated land speculation and their connection to financial institutions, both generating and reinforcing the process of financialization of African land. Besides talking about roots and dynamics of speculation with land on financial markets, she puts the perspective of scholarly investigation onto the investor's side in discussing guidelines of responsible investment and regulation in the front instead of focussing on the receiving countries.
The effects of the 2020 pandemic on the Latin-American region: a thorough before-after analysis.