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First the global mean is calculated from a matrix of three sets each containing three observations. Then the sum of squares is calculated. Lastly, the concept of degree of freedom is explained.
ANOVA 1: Calculating SST (total sum of squares)
The sum of squares and degree of freedom calculation from the previous videos are put into a ratio to calculate the F Value, on whose basis the null hypothesis is confirmed or rejected. If variance is higher between samples than within the null hypothesis is more likely to be rejected. The results of a numerical example are interpreted more abstractly and then tested with regards to a confidence interval and the corresponding F table.
ANOVA 3: Hypothesis test with F-statistic
The definition of a chi-square distribution is given. Chi-square is defined as the sum of random normally distributed variables (mean=0, variance=s.d.=1). The number of added squared variables is equal to the degrees of freedom. With more degrees of freedom the probability of larger chi-square values is increased.
Chi-square distribution introduction
The chi-square distribution is used to test a hypothesis. Therefore, expected values are related to observed values using a chi-square distribution. Then using p-value tables the hypothesis is tested at a 5% significance level.
Pearson's chi square test (goodness of fit) | Probability and Statistics | Khan Academy
First some properties about the Sum of squared residuals and the linear regression function are restated. In particular three properties that an ideal fitted regression line must fulfill are discussed. Then, the R squared is defined using the measures of the Sum of squared residuals, the total sum of squares and the sum of explained squares.
Econometrics // Lecture 3: OLS and Goodness-Of-Fit (R-Squared)
Based on a critique on econometric and DSGE models (in particular in the context of the financial crisis), Doyne Farmer presents his current research programme that aims at building an agent-based model of the financial and economic crisis. It models heterogeneous agents and from there simulates the economy, firstly for the housing market. The interview gives a short insight in the research programme.
Macroeconomics From the Bottom Up
First some definitions regarding econometrics, regressions, types of data and independent and dependent variables are given. Then the basic function of a simple regression analysis is explained. Lastly, there is discussion of the meaning of the error term.
Econometrics // Lecture 1: Introduction
The total sum of squares and the total degrees of freedoms are disaggregated by calculating in sample variance and "between" sample variance and their respective degrees of freedoms. It is demonstrated numerically that both these measures add up to the total sum of squares and the total degrees of freedom.
ANOVA 2: Calculating SSW and SSB (total sum of squares within and between)
Steve Keen discusses DSGE modeling and microfoundations by asking the question if it is ideologically possible to derive macroeconomics from microeconomics.
Discussing DSGE
First some terminology is explained. Then the interpretations of the coefficients and constants of the function are discussed. Afterwards the zero conditional mean assumption regarding the residual is problematized. Lastly, a graphical representation of a regression line is given and the least sum of squared errors is introduced and the equation for the coefficient of the linear function as well as for the intercept is given.
Econometrics // Lecture 2: "Simple Linear Regression" (SLR)
"Why information grows" by Cesar Hidalgo and the atlas of economic complexity. César visits the RSA to present a new view of the relationship between the individual and collective knowledge, linking information theory, economics and biology...
Why information grows and the atlas of economic complexity.
The article is a formal response to the debate between the economists Diane Coyle and Howard Reed, whose articles were published online by Prospect magazine in 2018. Then, it was taken by Rethinking Economics as representative for the vision of the global network which advocates for changing economics curricula. In fact, it clearly solves some issues within the debate around pluralism by explaining its common misunderstandings among academics and its true - often mislead - meaning.
Deliberate Misunderstandings in Economics: What Pluralism Really Means
Economics is dogmatic, monolithic, merely quantitative, highly normative, strongly political, primarily ethical, pseudo-scientific, and manipulative.
Economics is ...
Approaching the law of nature that determines all forms of economy. The bulk of economic theory addresses the economic process by setting out on a catalogue of aspects, seeking the laws in the aspects and hoping to get together a reliable view of the whole.
Economic theory, methodology, and secure foundations
What data is used in the economic models of the IPCC? How problematic is it, that tipping points are often ignored? A very interesting presentation by Steve Keen during the OECD Conference "Averting Systemic Collapse".
Averting Systemic Collapse
This panel discusses the role of mathematics and history in economics. Lord Robert Skidelsky and Dr. Ha-Joon Chang advocate for a more prominent role of history and a less prominent role of mathematics within economics. Prof. Steve Pisckhe and Prof. Francesco Caselli defend the dominant role of mathematics within economics. Each of the speakers gives a 10-15 minutes talk advocating his position, before the panel is opened up for Q&A. The discussion is moderated by Prof. James Foreman-Peck.
Too much Maths, too little History: The problem of Economics
In this talk Robert Skidelsky analyses how sociology did and could enrich economic analyses, but also how critical sociological insights have been colonised by mainstream economics.
How Can Sociology Help Economics?
In her short contribution, the author questions how the value of goods and services is shaped in current neoclassical teaching. She criticizes the principle of pricing based on marginal income. She discusses what can be called wealth generating, what kind of wealth we need and points out a lack of a value theory.
Takers and Makers: Who are the Real Value Creators?
This Forum in the Boston Review deals with the role of economics in modern policymaking and presents a wide set of perspectives on the topic. The opening text by Suresh Naidu, Dani Rodrik and Gabriel Zucman aims to answer a range of common criticisms against the modern, neoclassical science of economics and its influence on public discussions.
Economics After Neoliberalism
Economists claim they are not biased or ideological, but research by economist Mohsen Javdani tells another story. Javdani discovered that 82% of economists claim that statements and arguments should be evaluated on the content only, but the results of the study show the exact opposite.
The Dangerous Ideological Bias of Economists
In this podcast 'How Economic Theory and Policy Reinforce Racism' William Spriggs, the AFL-CIO’s chief economist, discusses the inadequacies of the pandemic economic rescue package and the influence of mainstream economic theory. He further explores how mainstream economic theory continues to fail everyone, especially Black communities, by disregarding history.
How Economic Theory and Policy Reinforce Racism
Can pluralism in economics be useful to tackle the fight against climate change? How can a diversity in methods and ideas allow for a better understanding of the issue of the climate crisis? What solutions do different schools of thought offer to overcome the most pressing challenge of the 21st Century? Our Rethinker Henrika Meyer will give you some answers and give you a glimpse of the solutions pluralism offers to tackle the fight against climate change.
Climate Economics
Can pluralism in economics be useful to tackle the fight against climate change? How can diversity in methods and ideas allow for a better understanding of the issue of the climate crisis? What solutions do different schools of thought offer to overcome the most pressing challenge of the 21st Century? Our Rethinker Henrika Meyer will give you some answers and give you a glimpse of the solutions pluralism offers to tackle the fight against climate change.
Clips on Climate: Complexity Economics
This video explains what the term 'Feminist Economics' describes and goes into detail on how feminist economists use methodology differently, why they advocate for diversity in research and how to look into preconditions for the functioning of our economies. It, additionally, highlights the link between feminist economics and the study of climate change.
What is Feminist Economics & what does it have to do with studying the climate crisis?
If there’s one method economists have neglected the most, it’s qualitative research. Whereas economists favour mathematical models and statistics, qualitative research seeks to understand the world through intensive investigation of particular circumstances, which usually entails interviewing people directly about their experiences. While this may sound simple to quantitative types the style, purpose, context, and interpretation of an interview can vary widely. Because of this variety, I have written a longer post than usual on this topic rather than doing it a disservice. Having said that, examples of qualitative research in economics are sadly scant enough that it doesn’t warrant multiple posts. In this post I will introduce qualitative research in general with nods to several applications including the study of firm behaviour, race, Austrian economics, and health economics. More than usual I will utilise block quotes, which I feel is in the spirit of the topic.
Qualitative Methods in Economics: "You Can Observe a Lot Just by Watching"
Poster of the different schools of thought made by Sergio A. Berumen. From the Greeks to late 20th and beginning of the 21th century.
General Guide To Schools Of Economic Thought
This paper posts a heretical question: Is economics a science after all? The answer to this question impinges on the methodology, hypotheses and results of economic research.
Is economics a science?
This course will introduce key concepts, theories and methods from socioeconomics. The first part of the course, will deal with the main economic actors and how their interactions are governed. Markets are seen as sets of social institutions. Institutions shape how consumers, firms and other economic actors behave. While it is difficult to understand how novelty emerges, we can study the conditions that are conducive to innovation. We will review how economic performance, social progress and human wellbeing are measured and what progress has been made. In the second part of the course, we will study a specific macroeconomic model that accounts for biophysical boundaries and inequality.
Foundations in Socioeconomics
This course focus on the behaviour of individuals from an pluralist economic and an interdisciplinary bevavioural science apprach.
Actors, Behaviours and Decision Processes
Introduction Economics is by necessity a multi paradigmatic science Several theoretical structures exist side by side and each theory can never be more than a partial theory Rothschild 1999 Likening scientific work to the self coordinating invisible hand of the market Michael Polanyi cautioned strongly against centralized attempts to steer …
Making Many Maps: Why We Need an Interested Pluralism in Economics and How to Get There
A pithy, stimulating debate between three great economists on the heterogeneous character of economic thought
The Future of Heterodox Economics
The goal of the class is to acquire familiarity with recently-published research in alternative macroeconomics with a focus on the distribution of income and wealth, cyclical growth models, and technical change.
Theory Seminar Macro-Distribution

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