Micro: The axiom of methodological individualism implies that processes on the macro-level are exclusively derived from actions of individuals on the micro-level. Therefore, all economic phenomena can be explained and described on the basis of individual action.
Micro: The focus lies in the observable behavior of human beings. Hence, central concepts refer to humans and their decisions.
Micro: The assumptions of a strong subjectivism not only implies a methodological but also an ontological individualism. Subjectivism means that the only existent world is that perceived by individuals. Even though aggregates or institutions might be discussed, they can always be reduced to individuals.
Meso: Several actors form a population. The macro level is composed of many rules and several populations, but is defined by the self-organization of populations and structures at the meso level. Hence, processes on the macro-level can only be explained by reference to the meso-level, i.e. the analysis of populations instead of individual actors.
Meso: The focus is on gender relations and their interaction with production regimes, (non-)markets as well as formal and informal institutions (laws, social norms). Hence, the analysis is primarily conducted on the meso-level.
Meso: The unit of analysis is class, not the individual. Collective interests are determined within classes rather than between individuals.
Macro: Inside a certain mode of production there are powerful material and social structures, like competition, that induce people to behave accordingly.
Meso / Macro: Institutions are understood as existing, at least potentially, independently of the humans that have created them. They are, therefore, crucial factors shaping the economy in their own right and stand at the center of attention. As a consequence, research is mostly centered on meso- and macro-level phenomena rather than on individual action.
Meso: Post Keynesians reject the idea that social structures or macroeconomic phenomena can be reduced to the behaviour of individuals. On the contrary, individuals always act in a certain institutional context which itself shapes their beliefs and actions, and connects different classes of agents or types of economic units with each other.
Macro: The capitalist macro-economy forms a system that has to be analysed in a systemic way. What happens in one sector of the economy, also has effects on other sectors.
Meso: The smallest parts of complex systems are agents. Economic agents can be human beings or institutions such as firms, banks or governments. Their interactions are shaped by the decisions of other agents as well as institutions such as the rule of law, culture, and markets.
Macro: Together, institutions and individuals form a complex system. At the same time, the system shapes the institutional structure and human decisions. These elements on their own cannot explain economic phenomena. Economics is more than the sum of its parts
Macro: The economy is an open system which is embedded in the larger systems of society and the biosphere.
Meso: The following issues are emphasized: institutions, power relations, uncertainty and ignorance. In this context, interactions between the economy, society and the environment are analysed.