Scarcity: The central economic problem is the limited nature of societal resources. Therefore, economics as science should analyse the usage and distribution of scarce resources.
Scarcity: The central economic problem is the scarcity of resources.
Uncertainty: Additionally, uncertainty is a factor in behavioural economics. Persons do not operate using rational calculation in uncertain decision-making situations. Instead they make use of certain decision heuristics.
Uncertainty / Change: For individuals, the coordination of projects and knowledge is the central economic problem. This focus strongly refers to uncertainty, the dispersal of knowledge and information as well as to changing circumstances.
Scarcity: For elder representatives of the Austrian School, the allocation of scarce resources as related to human needs is the central economic problem.
Uncertainty: Due to uncertainty about future events, economic decisions are constrained by informational and cognitive limitations and social dynamics such as animal spirits.
Dominance: Capitalist economies are highly productive but unstable and conflictive systems.
Scarcity: Natural resources and the absorption capacity of sinks are absolutely scarce.
Change: Social and ecological dynamics are central for the analysis of the economy.
Uncertainty: Knowledge about both the social and natural systems is inherently limited, thus we face uncertainty or even ignorance about the relevant processes and interactions.
Change / Uncertainty: Continuous change is the central economic problem. Uncertainty and technical change are the crucial variables which explain economies’ constant deviations from equilibrium.
Dominance: Power relations are the basic drivers of social and economic dynamics. Besides gender relations, these include ethnic and social relations.
Scarcity: Social resources such as money, labour and participation are limited. Therefore, their distribution among social groups is analysed.
Dominance: The central problem is the exploitation of work by capital, i.e. the dominance between classes.
Change: Dynamic processes such as class conflict or accumulation are of special importance. They are historically embedded and change over time.
Change: The central research object is the change of economic systems.
Uncertainty: Uncertainty and fundamental ignorance are the main economic problems.
Scarcity: Scarcity also plays a central role, since competition for scarce resources results in selection pressure.
Change: Due to the historical embeddedness of humans and institutions, temporal development and change, as well as stability are central topics.
Dominance: Power is also an important economic problem. On the one hand, institutions can enhance people’s emancipation. On the other hand, institutions can be used for repression and the preservation of power, status and wealth.